Displaying items 16 - 30 of 43 in total
  • Archive Resource

    Poor Women's Agency In Gaza Case Study

    This research examined the complexity of gendered subjectivity in Gaza Strip and how it is reshaped in a contradictory manner in the context of livelihood crisis and insecurity caused by the full siege imposed on Gaza Strip by the Israeli occupation and the international community. The research is unique because it attempted to deal with the reality of women’s everyday life and avoided any standardized framework of gender analysis. It focused on the contextualization of the concept of women’s agency based on the narration of women’s stories and life experiences. The documentation of poor women’s interpretation of their daily life is the basis for creating new knowledge and new theories. …

  • Archive Resource

    Small Powers, Little Choice: Contextualising Reproductive And Sexual Rights In Slums In Bangladesh, IDS Bulletin, 37.5

    How do young married women fare in an urban slum in Bangladesh? This article is based on in-depth ethnographic fieldwork among 153 married adolescent girls, aged 15–19, in a Dhaka slum, carried out from December 2001–January 2003. The author finds a shift away from the traditional arranged marriage practices, with 81 out of 153 young women having “love” marriages. Young women now have greater mobility and freedom to choose their own partners, but at the same time, face greater instability in marital relations. The lived experiences of engaging in sexual relations with their spouses are fraught with contradictions. …

  • Archive Resource

    Social Workers As Social Protectors! Reflections From A State Funded CCT Programme In Egypt

    This paper, presented to the IDS Social Protection for Social Justice Conference, 13-15 April 2011, examines the often neglected role of agents of developing states and the service providers that deliver public goods, specifically transfers, to the poor. It focuses on the case of Egypt. The paper describes the introduction of a new conditional cash transfers programme as a tool for social protection as it is shaped by the views and experiences of the women and men who are social workers and part of a 240,000 strong workforce employed by the Ministry of Social Solidarity (and Justice as it was renamed after the 25 January Revolution). The programme was designed so as to enhance the capabilities and include the participation and creativity of the social worker. …

  • Archive Resource

    State And CSO Partnerships In Poverty Alleviation, Chapter 6 In 2008 Egypt Human Development Report

    This chapter describes the landscape of welfare provision in one small Cairo suburb and the roles and relationships that determine this landscape. The chapter focuses specifically on the Ministry of Social Solidarity as the state apparatus mandated with welfare, poverty reduction and social protection; it investigates the range of programs that are offered by the Ministry and by CSOs active in these areas. The purpose of presenting this empirical case study is to understand the dynamics of the relationship between the state and civil society so as to suggest mechanisms for coordination, mutual accountability and more effective welfare provision to better address poverty alleviation and social protection. The case study considers the ideals and norms of each player — the state and civil society — their perceived mission statements and the objectives of their programmes so as to understand the dynamics of their power interplay. …

  • Archive Resource

    The Ethics Of Empowerment

    In this article, Koggel reflects on the various influences on her thinking on gender and development, including a research project in Indonesia to explore the possible gaps between the World Bank’s understanding of empowerment and social science theory and NGO practice prior to mainstreaming the concept; capabilities theory and the difference between empowerment and agency; and the rhetoric of empowerment. She discusses the importance of contextual analyses and of the limitations of generalized policies or principles designed to promote ‘development’ or empower women. An important lesson for development ethicists is the need to pay attention to and analyse relations of power – including the overarching factor of economic globalization in the form of neo-liberal and capitalist assumptions and structures. Another important lesson is the one she learned from Sen's complex analysis of poverty: that ethical issues of development are as relevant to ‘developed’ countries as they are to poor ‘developing’ countries. …

  • Archive Resource

    The Right To Abortion: Briefing From Brazil, Open Democracy

    Cecilia Sardenberg discusses the challenges facing Brazilian feminists and their supporters in the campaign to legalize abortion in the country beyond the current strict limits. She reports on the recent decision at the Brasilia gathering of the second Conference for Public Policies for Women (II CNPM) in support of legislation to sanctioning abortion on demand – a significant step beyond the current situation where it was legal only if the pregnancy results from rape or when it put the mother’s life at risk. Cecilia Sardenberg is the director and a founding member of the Nucleus of Interdisciplinary Women’s Studies (NEIM) at the Federal University of Bahia, Brazil. …

  • Archive Resource

    This Is All Koosa: Health-Seeking For Children In A Cairo Slum

    The aim of this paper, presented at Oxford's Health, Illness and Disease Conferenced held from 3-5 2009 July is to present the findings of an ongoing research project conducted in the Cairene slum of Ain Es-Sira. It examines the effects of financial capacity and conceptions of citizenship on the health-seeking behaviour of mothers for their children. Ain Es-Sira, a slum neighbourhood of approximately 6,000 inhabitants, has been selected to benefit from a pilot study of a conditional cash transfer (CCT) programme. Implemented in dozens of countries across the world, CCT programmes give families living below the poverty line cash and, in exchange, require that families fulfill certain conditions, which are assumed to facilitate the breakdown of the intergenerational transfer of poverty. …

  • Archive Resource

    Whose Money Is It?': On Misconceiving Female Autonomy And Economic Empowerment In Low-Income Households

    This article argues that the slip between policy intension and outcome in policies addressing women and money lies in three neo-liberal assumptions: that individuals have clear title to their earnings, that markets are not socially constructed and that viewing individuals and families as isolated units of subsistence is a valid analytical method. It argues that critiques of development policy that are rooted in individualised conceptualisations and measurement of female autonomy and empowerment do not adequately challenge these assumptions, instead they tend to rely on them themselves. It also suggests that feminist critiques are based on the double standard that women should have clear title to their earnings and assets, while men should be supporting the family. Using research undertaken in South India, this article demonstrates that the social construction of credit, labour, housing and marriage markets determine the extent to which women can benefit from improved livelihoods. …

  • Archive Resource

    Whose Vision, Whose Needs? Appropriation In Nigeria’s National Economic Empowerment And Development Strategy (NEEDS)

    This paper presented at a conference on ‘Reclaiming Feminism: Gender and Neo-liberalism organised by IDS and Birkbeck College from 9-10 July 2007, examines the reform programme of the Obasanjo government (1999-2007), as laid out in the National Economic Empowerment Development Strategy (NEEDS). Initiated halfway through the first term of Obasanjo’s tenure, this was the first explicitly articulated ‘economic and development agenda’ during his administration, as opposed to the characteristic one-off programmes previously developed on an ad hoc basis. Initial expectations of the government’s goals and intentions were high, given the long-awaited end of military rule and Obasanjo’s status as the first elected civilian head of state for decades since the Second Republic of Shehu Shagari. In this paper, the author reflects on processes that are involved in instrumentalist and opportunistic uses of ‘gender’ and ‘empowerment’ by the state, specifically the Olesugun Obasanjo two-term administration of Nigeria (1999 to 2007) and its NEEDS programme. …

  • Archive Resource

    Women And Paid Work In Pakistan

    This chapter offers an analysis of women and paid work with a view to identifying where there are changes underway in this area that may play a role in leading to equitable gender relations in Pakistan in the long term. The discussion is based on existing research on the subject, which comes from a variety of disciplines. Much of the research that will be discussed below is preliminary and based on micro-studies, or on larger quantitative surveys that may have ignored some of the diversity within the country. Women in Pakistan live in a society that is highly stratified according to class, caste, region and cultural variations, all of which have implications for their lives and opportunities. …

  • Research Project

    Conceptualising Empowerment in Global Spaces and the Shaping of International Policies and Practice about Women

    This project explored the meanings and debates around women’s empowerment within and among sets of actors with a global reach, and how they are shaping values, ideas and policy actions (or absence of actions) on women’s empowerment. …

  • Research Project

    Conditional Cash Transfers - Ain es-Sira

    The conditional cash transfer (CCT) pilot in the Cairene slum of Ain es Sira started in May 2009 and was scheduled to last for two years. The Social Research Center (SRC) of the American University in Cairo provided technical assistance to the Egyptian Ministry of Social Solidarity (MOSS) in designing, implementing and evaluating this pilot to inform national social policy decisions. Within the pilot, 380 most vulnerable families with children were registered to participate, receiving monthly cash payments in exchange for fulfilling child development goals related to health and education. …

  • Research Project

    Development Gender and Empowerment 53.2

    This special issue of 'Development' picks up some of the contentions and contestations that have accompanied the uptake of 'women's empowerment' by the development industry. Contributors reflect on their own personal and political engagement with the term and what it has come to represent. …

  • Research Project

    Feminisms and the Struggle for Reproductive Health and Reproductive Rights - the Brazilian Experience

    By exploring the link between the denial of women’s reproductive rights and the denial of women’s sexual agency under patriarchy, the researchers sought to elucidate the conditions under which feminist demands around abortion have been successful by drawing together experiences from across Latin America. …

  • Research Project

    Legal Reform and Feminist Activism

    This project researched the reforms that have been taking place in Egyptian personal status laws since 2000. The aim was to examine the unfolding reform story and what it entailed in terms of successes and challenges for women's rights activists in their pursuit of justice and equality in marriage and divorce rights, and for Egyptian women at large who seek legal redress in family courts. The focus of the study was on two aspects of the reform story: 1) the process of mobilising for the new laws, building alliances, choosing strategies, and making concessions, and 2) the implementation of the legal reforms in the new family courts that were introduced in 2004. …