Displaying items 16 - 30 of 47 in total
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    Quotas: A Pathway Of Political Empowerment?

    Over the last 20 years, the problem of low levels of representation of women in political office has been mobilising women, and especially feminists, throughout the world. The adoption of quotas has become a much-used tool to address the challenge of increasing women's political representation, and as a route to enhancing women's political empowerment. In Latin America, many countries have adopted quota systems, but with widely varying effects. This article takes stock of Latin American experience and asks to what extent quota systems have served as a pathway of women into politics. …

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    Quotas As A Path To Parity: Challenges To Women's Participation In Politics

    The promise of democratic equality has not arrived for women. In all societies said to be democratic, women have had an arduous struggle and are still fighting for access to rights common to any male citizen, for example an equal salary for equal work, promotion opportunities, the right to physical integrity, and access to work. Gaining the right to vote and the right to run for office as elected representatives has not in practice meant the right to be elected under the same conditions as men (Petit 2007). In the immense majority of representative democracies, women are far from having won political equality. …

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    Quota Systems And Women's Political Representation, Literature Review, Annotated Bibliography And Country Statistics Tables

    An eighty-six page literature review and bibliography with study tables. The chapters in the literature review are: Types of quota; Structural factors that affect the implementation and effectiveness of quotas; Campaigns for women’s representation and influence; Challenges women representatives face in promoting their power and influence; Beyond ‘presence’: enhancing women representative’s power and influence; Questioning quotas. The annotated bibliography sections are: Conceptual Articles and Reviews; Regional comparison and analysis; Country case-studies; Useful web-pages. …

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    Researching Empowerment: On Methodological Innovations, Pitfalls And Challenges 2011 Report

    This paper adopts an upside-down approach to women’s political empowerment. While the number of women we need to get into legislatures has often assumed centre stage, this paper takes women’s pathways as its starting point. In so doing, it challenges the narrow conception of women’s political engagement as occupying formal positions and seeks to present a more nuanced perspective on the spaces, relationships and ways of working that influence power hierarchies and dynamics. The paper’s aims are two-fold. …

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    Roundtable: Women In Politics: Women's Political Effectiveness

    The 'Women in Politics: Women's Political Effectiveness' Roundtable aimed to explore and highlight examples of support and training which are effective in promoting women's participation in politics. …

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    Taking The Lead? A Study Of Discourses And Practices On Women's Empowerment By Ghana's Ministry Of Women and Children's Affairs (MOWAC)

    This paper presented to 'Pathways: What are we Learning?' Conference held in Cairo from 20-24 January 2009 is derived from the authors’ larger project on policy discourses and practices on women's empowerment in Ghana by leading institutions and actors in the state, civil society and the donor community. The overall aim of the study is to understand and ultimately influence the conceptions of women's empowerment in Ghana, and the strategies and actions flowing from these. In this paper, the authors focus on the Ministry of Children and Women's Affairs (MOWAC), the designated central government agency for 'mainstreaming gender' into national development plans. Operationally, MOWAC sees itself as the coordinator and guide for other ministries and government agencies on gender issues and concerns. …

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    The Limits Of Women's Quotas In Brazil

    In this article, I examine the case of Brazil which, unlike many other Latin American countries, is an example of where quotas are not working. Drawing on over ten years of research and exploring the dynamics of a varied group of political parties, I contest that male resistance is not the only reason behind this failure. Vagueness around the quota law and a lack of sanctions, together with the elitist nature of politics in Brazil are all contributing factors. My research has also revealed a few anomalies, showing that contrary to much of the literature, women would seem to fare better in elections within less developed and smaller states in Brazil. …

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    The Participation Paradox: Quotas Policy In Latin America

    Within the last 20 years, the problem of women’s participation in formal power positions has been mobilizing women, especially feminists, throughout Latin America. After over half a century since gaining the right to vote, Latin-American women have recognized that, in practice, this fought for right did not guarantee the right to be elected as well. Indeed, Latin American women have remained marginalized from power, kept from participating in greater numbers in deliberative power structures. In these circumstances, the implementation of quota systems for women in a context of affirmative action policies has figured as a major goal in the mobilisation of women in their struggle for access to power structures. …

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    The Sudanese Women's Movement And The Mobilisation For The 2008 Legislative Quota And Its Aftermath

    This article explores the pathways of political action pursued by the Sudanese women's movement leading up to the introduction of a women's quota in 2008 and its implementation in the most recent 2010 national parliamentary elections, the country's first in 24 years. The article argues that the main achievement of the quota was the extent to which it mobilized women to engage in politics, rather than the increased representation of women in parliament. The form the quota took however, has not significantly challenged political parties to put forth women candidates in core geographic constituencies, restricting them instead to separate women's lists. The need for revisiting the quota, healing divisions within the women's movement and negotiating a robust common programme in the next phase are all critical for translating numbers into positive changes in Sudanese women's lives. …

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    The Will To Political Power: Rwandan Women In Leadership

    Rwanda has one of the highest representations of women in parliament in the world. This article examines, from the perspective of a female MP in parliament, the dynamics behind the process of supporting more women assuming leadership positions in parliament. The article argues that the implementation of an electoral gender quota certainly carves the space necessary to allow more women to enter politics, nevertheless, a constellation of factors is needed to work together in order to create the enabling environment necessary for the quota to be effective. Some of these factors include (but are not restricted to) challenging the hierarchical gender relations in post-genocide Rwanda; the political will on the part of the government to engender politics; the role of national machineries in monitoring and pressing for gender-sensitive national policies, as well as the strategic mobilisation of female parliamentarians backed by the progressive new Rwandan constitution. …

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    Towards A Politics Of Collective Empowerment: Learning From Hill Women In Rural Uttarakhand, India

    This article argues that to understand the conditions that enable effective participation by women in politics, analysis is needed not just of the characteristics and performance of elected women leaders but also the extent to which village communities are engaged through collective processes, in demanding accountability from those elected. The article presents the experiences of a women's movement in the Uttarakhand that has evolved from a programme of environmental education in the region. Over the years, this movement has developed a strong political consciousness. Women's participation in Whole Village Groups has paved the way for active engagement with local governance institutions. …

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    Trilhas Do Poder De Mulheres. Experiencias Internacionais Em Acoes Afirmativas, Graficos Do Congresso Nacional, Brasilia

    This book provides a summary of a conference held at the Brazilian National Congress in June 2007 on international experiences of affirmative action. The purpose of the conference was to identify and analyse, on the one hand, the shortcomings of the current Brazilian quota system and potential sources of support in congress for a change; and, on the other, highlight successful experiences of increasing women’s political representation in legislative bodies in other countries. Representatives from Argentina, Costa Rica, Bangladesh, Rwanda and Palestine, and from the Inter Parliamentary Union (IPU) in Europe, were brought together to discuss “lessons learned” from mechanisms at work in their countries, in order to contribute to the development of an alternative proposal for political reform in Brazil and other countries in a similar situation regarding women’s low representation in legislating bodies. …

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    'Voice' As A Pathway To Women's Empowerment: Reflections On The Indian Experience

    This chapter explores different ways in which ‘voice’ has been a pathway to empowerment in India. Three major streams are discussed, the women’s movement, official efforts to institutionalize women’s voice, and decentralization with reservation which has guaranteed a space in local governance to women. The manner of engagement between the women’s movement and the State is reviewed. A more detailed discussion of the Panchayat institutions with empirical evidence on women’s participation is presented. …

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    Women And Politics In Post-War Sierra Leone (2002-2011) (Policy Brief)

    As part of its post-war reconstruction and peace consolidation efforts, the Government of Sierra Leone has noted in all its policy documents that gender equality is a cross-cutting issue and will be included in all government policies, programmes and projects across all sectors of society. The objective of this research was to assess the government’s gender equality and mainstreaming framework in the arena of politics and public sector governance. The author found that despite the government’s policy initiatives, women’s political empowerment within the structures of government were unsatisfactory. However, Women have continued to actively engage the state and political parties to increase their numbers in government. …

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    Women And Politics In Post-War Sierra Leone (2002-2011) (Report)

    The objective of this study was to assess the implementation of the government’s gender equality and mainstreaming framework in the arena of politics and public sector governance. The paper discusses: election results and post-war changes in female participation and political representation; Affirmative Action policies; the effect of the women’s movement on women’s political representation; the electioneering process. The paper concludes that opportunities created by the post-war moment have opened up the male-dominated political arena to female politicians, in spite of threats of violence including rape and intimidation, and women have moved ahead to claim their space however small, through articulated demands for inclusion in governance. This increase is shown to be more of their own making as individuals and as a coalition than of a political will from a male-dominated system of governance. …