Displaying items 61 - 75 of 135 in total
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    Promoting Sexual Rights Through Human Rights Education: Experiences At Grassroots In Turkey, IDS Bulletin, 37.5

    Control of women’s sexuality is the root cause of many women’s human rights violations, such as ‘honour’ crimes, early and forced marriages and female genital mutilation. The Turkish organisation Women for Women’s Human Rights (WWHR) – New Ways, contests this control of women’s sexuality, taking an affirmative approach to sexuality to open up space for women to claim their rights. In 2004, WWHR led a campaign for reform of the Turkish penal code which resulted in over 30 amendments on sexual and bodily rights of women and girls in Turkey, including criminalisation of marital rape and removal of a provision granting sentence reductions for ‘honour’ killings. They have also run human rights trainings for over 4,500 women throughout Turkey which include a module on sexual rights promoting the idea that women have a right to sexual pleasure. …

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    Putting The Power Back Into Empowerment

    Of all the buzzwords that have entered the development lexicon in the past thirty years, "empowerment" is probably the most widely used and abused. Like many other important terms that were coined to represent a clearly political concept, it has been "mainstreamed" in a manner that has virtually robbed it of its original meaning and strategic value. In this article Srilatha explains that the word 'empowerment' must be reclaimed. …

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    Rape In Pakistan - The Real Verdict

    The gang-rape of Mukhtaran Mai launched a nine-year court battle that concluded with a verdict by the Supreme Court of Pakistan acquitting all but one of the accused. Her case illustrates how both the formal and informal systems of justice share the same hostility to women who defy social norms and demand justice in cases of rape, says Ayesha Khan. …

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    Readjusting Women's Too Many Rights: The State, the Public Voice, Women's Rights in South Yemen

    This chapter discusses the processes that led to the promulgation of the two Yemeni family codes of 1974 in the South and 1992 after the Unification. The author will look from a larger societal perspective at who the actors were in drafting the codes and what kind of public debates were allowed as part of the two processes. In particular, she will discuss the theoretical implications of a development gone reverse; does modernisation always bring women more rights? What kind of rhetoric a state has to turn into when it takes away women rights that gained popular approval? …

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    Reforming Egyptian Family Laws: The Debate about a New Substantive Code

    In the first decade of the new millennium, a series of new procedural personal status laws were passed in Egypt, with great significance for women. However, many of those who pushed for these reforms felt that the lack of comprehensive changes in the substantive laws undermined the new procedural laws and maintained a legal system that legitimised hierarchical gender roles and relations.  Accordingly, since 2005 there have been initiatives to introduce a new comprehensive family law.  These new efforts have triggered a heated public debate. …

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    Re-gendering the United Nations: Old Challenges and New Opportunities

    This chapter portrays the experiences of feminists confronting institutionalised discrimination within the UN bureaucratic machine. It documents how over four years of difficult negotiations, feminist advocates inside and outside the bureaucracy contributed to the successful merger of four UN organisations into a new UN entity: UN Women. …

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    Sex Is A Gift From God: Paralysis And Potential In Sex Education In Malawi

    Religious organisations are often the site for some of the most negative prescriptive messages about sexuality and might seem a difficult place to raise such issues. However, there are glimmers within religious institutions of recognition of the power of pleasure. In this chapter, Bertrand-Dansereau describes how secular sexuality education interventions create even less space for discussion of pleasure than religious interventions in Malawi, and how negativity about sex and sexuality limits their effectiveness. Bertrand-Dansereau finds unexpectedly that in Malawi, church sexuality education was far more open and sex-positive than secular alternatives, which tried to motivate people to safer behaviours through fear of disease. …

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    Sex, Work And Citizenship: The VAMP Sex Workers' Collective In Maharashtra

    This chapter explores the evolution of The Veshya Anyay Mukti Parishad (VAMP) collective. VAMP is a sex-worker led organization born in 1996 in the context of a growing HIV/AIDS movement which has generally taken an instrumental approach to sex workers. In contrast to many sex worker organisations emerging around that time, VAMP took an explicitly rights-based approach from the outset. It aimed to forge and consolidate a common identity among women in sex work which could empower them to articulate and assert their full range of rights as well as protect themselves from HIV infection. …

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    Speaking For Change: Voice And Women's Empowerment

    The realities of women’s lives in Pakistan are complex and challenging. The first section of this detailed scoping paper which was presented at the Pathways South Asia Hub Scoping Workshop 19-21 August 2006, presents an overview of current day discrimination that Pakistani women and girls face, including reduced access to resources, and discriminatory legal and customary practices. To understand women’s voice, this paper uses the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework. The second section describes initiatives that have helped expand women’s political space in Pakistan. …

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    Steady Money, State Support and Respect can Equal Women's Empowerment in Egypt

    This chapter examines the development of a pilot conditional cash transfer (CCT) programme which was carried out in the Cairo neighbourhood of Ain el Sira from 2008‑2012 by the Egyptian Ministry of Social Solidarity and its partners, with technical and research support provided by the American University in Cairo and the Pathways of Women’s Empowerment programme. The aim was to test out the programme in one urban setting in Cairo as a learning model for future national-level implementation. CCTs are seen to be efficient, effective, popular and even progressive because they divert resources to women. This programme sought to be even more progressive in that it contested the gender dynamics usually associated with CCTs that validate women’s roles as mothers and ignore their productive roles and agency. …

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    Taking The Bull By The Horns: Contemporary Feminist Politics In Bangladesh In South Asian Feminisms: Politics And Possibilities. Zed Books

    In recent years, feminists in Bangladesh have faced many challenges. This chapter focuses on two major issues: the NGO-ization of feminist organisations and the generational divide within the movement; and provides new insights on the impact of NGO-ization and the possibilities of creating an intergenerational movement. Based on empirical data, we demonstrate that size, location and available resources make a difference to the impact of NGO-ization on feminist organisations, especially on their organisational autonomy, agency and accountability. We argue that while NGO-ization has diluted feminist political messages it has increased outreach and helped to transmit feminist messages into other spheres. …

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    The Challenge Of Organizing Domestic Workers In Bangalore: Caste, Gender And Employer-Employee Relations In The Informal Economy

    Organizing domestic workers has been tried in many ways, in large part because there is so much heterogeneity within the sector. It is a sector where employer-employee relationships are very dynamic, flexible and arbitrary; domestic workers are often hard to reach, spending most of their time in the ‘private’ sphere of the home; and in some contexts, the non-monetary aspects of agreements between employers and workers may have particular significance. These are some of the many challenges to organizing. This chapter discusses the situation of domestic workers in Bangalore and the experience of Stree Jagruti Samiti, a women’s organization inspired by the women’s movement of the 1970s, in initiating and building the Karnataka Domestic Workers’ Union (KDWU), including the many challenges it has faced. …

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    The Empowerment Of Women: Rights And Entitlements In Arab Worlds, In Gender Rights And Development: A Global Sourcebook

    This chapter argues that the instrumentalist approach to women’s empowerment has created a broad near consensus around some rights, but has failed to engage with the political processes which determine how rights in general are defined and made operational in society. The timid approach to gender rights as an avenue to well-being has failed to question why these rights have been denied, and how this denial has been ideologically legitimized. Unitary and rigid interpretations of religion, culture, and tradition have been doled out as reasons why the structural meanings of empowerment are unsuited to and unpopular in Arab Muslim countries. The contest between the basic needs approach to empowerment and the more radical rights-based approach defines current approaches to gender and empowerment. …

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    The NGOization Of Women's Movements And Its Implications For Feminist Organizing

    A panel from the the AWID Forum held in Cape Town from 14-17 November 2008. Dzodzi Tsikata discussed how women’s NGOs in Ghana have responded to some of the challenges they face because of NGOization. She recounted the history of NGOization in Ghana and the lessons that women’s NGOs learned from it, and concluded that “while NGOization still remains a huge issue for the women’s movement in Ghana, I think that women’s organisations in Ghana have come to recognize by their work that NGOs are not synonymous with civil society nor with the women’s movement. ” Saba Khatak placed the women’s movement in Pakistan in the larger context of Pakistani politics. …

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    The Politics of Mobilising for Gender Justice in Egypt from Mubarak to Morsi and Beyond

    This paper examines the nature of the political struggle over the status, role and identity of women in Egypt in between the two revolutions (January 2011 and June 2013). …