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CLTS Newsletter August 2013

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Welcome to the August edition of the CLTS Newsletter which offers what we hope is an interesting and useful collection of resources, news and views.

In particular, let me highlight the following:

One day CLTS Sharing and Learning Workshop at SACOSAN V

The CLTS Knowledge Hub is convening a one day CLTS sharing and learning event prior to the main SACOSAN V Conference in Kathmandu, Nepal. The event is open to all engaged and interested in CLTS. The agenda will be determined by the interests of those present. The free workshop will run from 9.30 am to 5pm on Sunday 20th October and includes lunch. Please register by emailing N.Vernon@ids.ac.uk with your name, job title, organisation, country. We will then send information about the venue.

88 practical ideas for CLTS campaigns

Over 50 countries are implementing CLTS. More than 15 have adopted it as their official approach for rural sanitation. More and more countries, regions within countries, and districts, are mounting campaigns for total sanitation through CLTS. Drawing on experiences with campaigns in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, India, Indonesia, Kenya, Malawi, Sierra Leone and other countries, this note by Robert Chambers lists approaches and actions which have contributed to success and other practical ideas. Please contact us with your feedback and additions.

Annual Progress Report of Plan's Pan African project 'Empowering self-help sanitation of rural and peri-urban communities and schools in Africa'- annual progress report

Plan’s Pan African CLTS Programme aims to empower rural and peri-urban communities through the use of CLTS, SLTS and UCLTS. This report describes progress against the overall programme objectives, outlining challenges and lessons learned.  In 2012, the Pan Africa Programme reached its half way point and a Mid Term Review (MTR) was conducted to draw lessons learned from past and on-going activities in order to improve the implementa­tion of the programme in the second half of the project.

Participatory technology design

is an exciting innovation that has recently been tried in Malawi -Participatory design offers a methodology that harnesses the knowledge and skills of local users and suppliers of sanitation and offers a way to develop sanitation technology solutions that work, are affordable and context-appropriate. You can read about participatory technology latrine design in this one pager and in this blog by Ben Cole who helped UNICEF to pilot this approach in Malawi. There is also mention of it in this blog and this report from the WEDC Conference.



New on the blog

"Ka Ni Saki Ku Bona, Tuzi Tuzi" - "I hate to see the shit": First CLTS training in Caprivi, Namibia

Livingstone Kentshitswe, one of the trainers, demonstrating how to facilitate shit mapping We have just returned from an exciting and truly inspiring CLTS workshop in the Caprivi region of Namibia. Read more

A Participatory Design experience in Malawi and findings from the sanitation campaign in Haryana (India)

WEDC Conference, Nakuru

From our second day of the WEDC Conference in Nakuru, Kenya, I would like to highlight two outstanding papers presented, namely Bell’s research about sanitation approaches in India and Cole’s insights from a participatory design experience in Malawi.

Read more

CLTS in Kenya and menstrual hygiene management

Gathering by the CLTS stall at the WEDC Conference in Nakuru

Our third day at the WEDC conference in Nakuru started with an open meeting at the CLTS stall. As those who participated were primarily from Kenya, most of the discussion dealt with sanitation in the country.

The first topic discussed was the need of political commitment at higher levels if CLTS is to be rolled out at the country level. When it is in place, solutions are quickly found to the ‘common’ obstacles CLTS faces when scaling up (lack of capacity, human resources etc.).

Read more

Food hygiene, monitoring handwashing and the HIV/AIDS-sanitation link

WEDC Conference, Nakuru The 36th WEDC International Conference kicked off on the 1st July with the theme ‘Delivering Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Services in an Uncertain Environment’. The opening plenary included a keynote address by Kamal Kar, who presented the current sanitation crisis and the potential of CLTS to tackle it. After that, papers were presented in several parallel sessions which covered different topics. Read more

Highlights from the CLTS Sharing and Learning workshop in Nakuru,Kenya

Participants at the Nakuru workshop

Yesterday (30th June 2013), we had a CLTS Sharing and Learning workshop in Nakuru, Kenya, in the run-up of the 36th WEDC International Conference, about which I will blog starting from tomorrow.

Read more

Sanitation in Nakuru’s low-income urban areas

We had two very interesting activities on our last day at the WEDC conference in Nakuru, Kenya. In the morning, we made an exciting visit to a Rhonda area in Nakuru, in order to learn about the initiatives of Practical Action and Umande Trust there. In the evening, we had a side-event called ‘CLTS: taking stock, challenges, innovations, and ways forward’, where CLTS practitioners from different countries shared innovations that were being implemented in their areas.

Read more

Using participatory design to develop latrine options in Malawi

Creating prototypes to explore the design options In 2011, UNICEF Malawi decided to apply social marketing tools to improve and enhance their existing CLTS program. The CLTS program had demonstrated great advances in improving sanitation coverage. However, reports were coming into the office that households were continuing to struggle with poor product designs that collapsed after a short time-in-use. Read more

News and resources by country


US chief complains of defecation in Okavango Delta

US deputy chief of mission to Botswana Michael Murphy has expressed concern over people who openly defecate in the Okavango River Basin. He said improving health and hygiene, as well as protecting the quality of the water are just a few of the measures his government is pushing to improve management of the Okavango Delta and the entire Okavango River Basin. Under the USAID supported Southern African Regional Environment (SAREP), CLTS has recently been introduced in Shakawe and will be brought to Gumare next month.

Read more


CLTS and the MDG Sanitation Challenge: Case Study Eritrea

Locally built latrine, Eritrea

The aim of this research project by Patrick A. Sijenyi was to investigate whether Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) as implemented in Eritrea could accelerate sustainable progress towards achieving the MDG sanitation target.

Read more


Gambia: Saving lives with Community-Led Total Sanitation

Alfred Gomez, Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Promotion Coordinator at the Directorate of Health Promotion and Education Unit of the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare shares his views on the CLTS initiative in this column and how the piloting of CLTS in the Gambia in 2009 and the gradual expansion of the approach through targeting of communities in West Coast Region, particularly along the Gambia -Casamance Border, Central River, Upper River, and Lower River Regions have helped to reduce the rate of open defecation in the country.

Read more


Upper Regions of Ghana plan to declare ODF by 2014

District Assemblies in the Upper East and the Upper West Regions have pledged to work assiduously to declare their Districts Open Defecation Free (ODF) by the close of 2014.

Read more

Ghana's Government commitss to increasing access to improved sanitation

Recent data indicates that only 15 per cent of Ghanaians have access to improved sanitation. In a speech read for him by Mr Baba Jamal, the Deputy Minister, at the launch of the scaling up of the Community-Led Sanitation programme to the Eastern and Brong Ahafo regions at Suhum, Ghana’s Minister of Local Government and Rural Development Mr Oppong-Fosu said the government is committed to achieving the MDG target, which requires the country to halve the population without access to improved sanitation.

Read more

Local Ministry signs MoU with NGOs on hygiene, sanitation

The Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development on Wednesday signed a Memorandum of Understanding with Results-Based Financing (RBF) organizations for the provision of sanitation and hygiene at the community level. The RBF, include six community based organizations, tasked with the mandate of implementing the Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) programme to improve sanitation and hygiene at the districts level.

Read more

2014 Open defecation free target unlikely for Ghana's Volta Region

Volta Region is unlikely to attain the March 2014 Open Defecation Free (ODF) status it set for itself despite some significant successes. Mr Francis Ganyaglo, deputy Volta Regional Minister set the target when he addressed the closing session of a training workshop on Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) in May this year.

Read more


Maryada Abhiyan: Women-led Total Sanitation campaign in Madhya Pradesh

Maryada Abhiyan logo In Madhya Pradesh, a new campaign Maryada Abhiyan ( maryada meaning dignity in Hindi), recognises the key role that women can play in catalysing improvements in sanitation and hygiene behaviour and moving their communities towards ODF. It also acknowledges and supports the positive impact of CLTS and sanitation improvements can have on women’s empowerment and their standing in their communities. Read more

Pathways to Sustainability in Community-Led Total Sanitation. Experiences from Madhya Pradesh and Himachal Pradesh

Inspecting latrines India’s rural Total Sanitation Campaign (1999-2012) in India was considered a complete failure due to its poor results and the millions of ‘missing latrines’. In the light of the shortcomings of the campaign, different actors tried to introduce the Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) approach in the country. However, as a result of opposition at the national level, only specific districts in certain states tried the approach. Many of these experiences were claimed to be very successful, but the evidence base of these claims was weak. Did they actually manage to introduce the CLTS in these areas? Did it yield good results? Are these sustainable? Read more

Shivpuri women's effort on sanitation gets Unicef backing

Two films on sanitation titled 'Dignity Thread: Women led Sanitation' and 'Community Led Total Sanitation in Madhya Pradesh' were launched at an event held by UNICEF on Tuesday 27th August 2013.

Read more

Forget Food Bill, India Needs Sanitation

India is poised to launch one of the biggest food subsidy programs ever attempted, but some experts say it will fail unless major steps are taken to improve sanitation. Read more

Sanitation and stunting in India: Undernutrition's blind spot

Global proportions of ODF, poverty and undernutrition diagram The puzzle of persistent undernutrition in India is largely explained by open defecation, population density, and lack of sanitation and hygiene. The impact on nutrition of many faecally-transmitted infections, not just the diarrhoeas, has been a blind spot. In hygienic conditions much of the undernutrition in India would disappear. To tackle undernutrition effectively requires the elimination of open defecation and a radical transformation of sanitation and hygiene policies and practices. Read more

Reclaiming human dignity

A community-led sanitation campaign by the Rajasthan government and UNICEF has made 12 panchayats in four districts open defecation free. The CLTS approach is part of the collaboration between the Rajasthan government and UNICEF to convince and enable the community as a whole to adopt toilet use. It is being implemented in the four districts of Dungarpur, Tonk, Udaipur and Karali and 12 gram panchayats have already become OFD.

Read more

The unsanitary truth about gender inequality in India

A lack of basic sanitation and privacy in Indian schools is driving adolescent girls away from education. Read more


Photo-report of a visit to Rhonda: Total Sanitation in low-income areas of Nakuru, Kenya

This photo-report, commissioned by the CLTS Knowledge Hub at the Institute of Development Studies, consists of a series of pictures complemented by observations and reflections from Andres Hueso Gonzalez who visited Rhonda in Nakuru after the WEDC Conference and learned about the Realizing the Right to Total Sanitation project, initiated by Practical Action and Umande Trust

Read more

Journey to ODF- Nambale

Madende B Villlage is ODF

Learn how Nambale became the first ODF district in Kenya.

Read the report

Read more


Liberia: Government, USAID-Iwash Score Big CLTS Success

A total of sixty one communities in Bong, Lofa and Nimba counties have been declared Open Defecation Free (ODF) after a meticulous process conducted by the government of Liberia with support from the USAID-funded IWASH Project jointly implemented by CHF International and PSI. Read more


Introducing Participatory Design into Sanitation Programmes

Exploring different design options

by Ben Cole

One pager on how to use participatory technology design within the context of CLTS.


Read more

CLTS Programme Frees Nsanje From Cholera Attack

Nsanje district which is infamous for Cholera outbreaks has not registered any cholera related case since November 2012, a development that has called for celebrations by stakeholders in the district and is being attributed to CLTS. Read more


Training of CLTS Facilitators Workshop in Caprivi

Livingstone Kentshitswe, one of the trainers, demonstrating how to facilitate shit mapping From the 27th May to 1st June 2013, SAREP (Southern Africa Regional Environmental Project) organized a one week Training of CLTS Facilitators Workshop in Kasika, Caprivi Region, Namibia, in close collaboration with IRDNC and the Directorate of Water Supply and Sanitation Coordination (DWSSC) of the Ministry of Agriculture, Water, and Forestry (MAWF). This was the first training workshop and experimental use of the CLTS approach in the Caprivi Region of Namibia. Read more


Nigeria- a CLTS revolution

Watch how UNICEF is helping communities become disease free in Nigeria.

Read more

Osun governor’s wife declares zero tolerance for open defecation

The wife of the Osun State governor, Alhaja Sherifat Aregbesola has said that she would not relent in ensuring that the state becomes totally open defecation free.

Read more

CLTS, most effective in achieving coverage of sanitation

CLTS was described as the only appropriate way and most effective in achieving rapid coverage of sanitation in every community by the wife of the Osun State governor, Alhaja Sherifat Aregbesola during a 5-day workshop on the implementation of Community Led Total Sanitation  held at the Royal Palace Hotel, Ilobu, Osun State.

Read more in the Nigerian Tribune, 20th June 2013

Read more


Promising flames for Karamoja- CLTS to transform behaviour

Community members show disgust and shock during CLTS triggering

World Vision is piloting CLTS in Northern Karamoja to address the dire sanitation situation in one of Uganda's poorest and remotest regions. The Kalimajong population were until recently living as pastoralists but now stay in more permanent settlements. However, the sanitation and hygiene behaviour has remained the same and open defecation is rife.

Read more about how World Vision is using CLTS to address the sanitation challenge in Karamoja.

Read more

CLTS in Uganda

This film documents Plan Uganda's CLTS programme.

Read more

Other news and resources

One day sharing and learning on CLTS at SACOSAN V

Group learning

The CLTS Knowledge Hub is convening a one day CLTS sharing and learning event prior to the main SACOSAN V Conference in Kathmandu, Nepal. The event is open to all engaged and interested in CLTS. The agenda will be determined by the interests of those present. The free workshop will run from 9.30 am to 5pm on the 20th October and includes lunch. Please register by emailing N.Vernon@ids.ac.uk with your name, job title, organisation, country. We will then send information about the venue.

Read more

Annual Progress Report for 'Empowering self-help sanitation of rural and peri-urban communities and schools in Africa'

sanitation sensitisation in a school in Niger This annual narrative report describes progress against the overall programme objectives and at country level, outlining challenges and lessons learned as part of Plan's eight country Pan African programme. Read more

CLTS at the 36th WEDC International Conference (Report)

WEDC Conference, Nakuru

Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) had a strong presence at the WEDC conference in Nakuru, Kenya. The CLTS Knowledge Hub hosted a number of events throughout the week, which are described in this report.  New innovations came to light, and exciting discussions were had both during the sessions, and at the CLTS exhibition stall, which was a key focal point for all people interested in CLTS.  Dr Kamal Kar gave a powerful keynote speech in the opening plenary which brought CLTS to the minds of all conference participants from the outset.

Read more

CLTS Campaigns: a checklist of 88 practical actions

Children in Ethiopia sing an anti open defecation song Drawing on experiences with campaigns in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, India, Indonesia, Kenya, Malawi, Sierra Leone and other countries, this note by Robert Chambers lists approaches and actions which have contributed to success and other practical ideas. The core of CLTS is triggering, post-triggering follow-up, verification, and post ODF sustainability and progress. Campaigns include all these together with much more. It is mainly the ‘much more’ that is summarised here. Read more

Member States in the General Assembly adopt resolution on "Sanitation for All" and officially designate 19 November as World Toilet Day

World Toilet Day and Sanitation for all Resolution On the 24th July, Member States in the General Assembly adopted a resolution on 'Sanitation for All', officially declaring the 19th November as World Toilet Day. Read more

Participatory Methods

Participatory methods website logo The Participation, Power and Social Change Team at the Institute of Development Studies has launched a new website on participatory methods. It explains what participatory methods are, where and how they have been used, their problems and potentials and the debates about them. The focus is on participatory approaches to strategic analysis and programme design, monitoring and evaluation. It also includes resources on participatory learning, research and communication in organisations, networks and communities Read more

Report on the 36th WEDC International Conference

WEDC Conference, Nakuru This report by Andres Hueso Gonzalez, commissioned by the CLTS Knowledge Hub at the Institute of Development Studies, aims at summarising the main insights gained from his attendance of the conference, specifically with regard to sanitation and CLTS-related issues. Read more

Will data linking open defecation to undernutrition force change?

Studies show a link between open defecation and stunted development, but merely building toilets may not be the answer. Read more

Let's talk crap. Seriously. TED Talk by Rose George

It's 2013, yet 2.5 billion people in the world have no access to a basic sanitary toilet. And when there's no loo, where do you poo? In the street, probably near your water and food sources -- causing untold death and disease from contamination. Get ready for a blunt, funny, powerful talk from journalist Rose George about a once-unmentionable problem.

Rose George “talks shit” to raise awareness about the lack of basic sanitation worldwide.

Read more