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East Asia and Pacific

Targeting the poor in sanitation and hygiene programs through result-based financing in Vietnam

Over the past decade or so, donors have increasingly sought to link their financing to results on the ground, and focus on interventions towards the poor. In sanitation, this effort has mostly taken the form of pilot operations through government agencies; only a handful of schemes have involved international non-governmental organisations (INGOs). This discussion paper shows how the INGO East Meets West (EMW) pioneered the use of output-based aid (OBA) type incentives to ensure sustainability and better poverty targeting in Vietnam.

Date: 4 November 2019

Community Hygiene Output-Based Aid (CHOBA): Project Completion Report

This project completion report synthesises lessons learned from the implementation of the Community Hygiene Output-Based Aid (CHOBA) project between 2012 and 2016. The objective of the project was to use an output-based approach (OBA) to accelerate household ownership of hygienic latrines, with a focus on the rural poor in Vietnam and Cambodia. The project was implemented by the East Meets West Foundation (EMW). 

Date: 4 November 2019

Hanh Nguyen Hong on Gender Transformative WASH in Vietnam

In Vietnam, many women face challenges accessing water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) services and facilities; lack of funds and information, exclusion from decision-making, poorly designed facilities along with restrictive gender norms all create barriers.

Hanh Nguyen Hong (Thrive Networks/East Meets West) talks about how the Women-Led Output Based Aid (WOBA) programme in Vietnam is overcoming these barriers by facilitating gender transformative WASH.

Blog/Video: Celebrating Gender Transformative Water, Sanitation and Hygiene in Vietnam

In Vietnam, many women face challenges accessing WASH services and facilities; lack of funds and information, exclusion from decision-making, poorly designed facilities along with restrictive gender norms all create barriers.

Toilet revolution in China

The widespread prevalence of unimproved sanitation technologies has been a major cause of concern for the environment and public health, and China is no exception to this. Towards the sanitation issue, toilet revolution has become a buzzword in China recently. This paper elaborates the backgrounds, connotations, and actions of the toilet revolution in China. The toilet revolution aims to create sanitation infrastructure and public services that work for everyone and that turn waste into value.

Date: 9 November 2018

Working with Women in Rohingya Refugee Camps to Make Toilets Safer

In the world’s largest camp, Rohingya refugees are now living in sprawling and cramped conditions in makeshift shelters made from bamboo and plastic tarpaulin. Finding suitable space to build toilets and washing facilities has proved extremely challenging. More than a third of women surveyed by Oxfam said they did not feel safe or comfortable going to collect water or using toilets and shower cubicles –many of which lack a roof and a lockable door.

WASH Experiences of Women Living with Disabilities in Cambodia

Cambodia’s access to basic water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) remains low compared to other Southeast Asian countries despite improvements over the last decade. There is limited documentation about the WASH experiences of women with disabilities in Cambodia, for which this publication recommends paying greater attention to the issue.


Key messages within this eight-page brief:

Date: 13 September 2018

Fostering Collective Action to Improve Sanitation in Rural Cambodia

Rural Cambodia is home to the largest proportion of individuals practicing open defecation in Southeast Asia. The Cambodia Rural Sanitation and Hygiene Improvement Program (CRSHIP) has sought to address harmful sanitation practices by increasing access to improved sanitation and promoting proper hygiene in rural target areas.

Date: 13 September 2018

Learning Brief: Ensuring Child Safety During and After CLTS

Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) has been implemented in Cambodia since 2005 as a means of improving sanitation and hygiene practices in rural communities, and mobilising them to achieve open defecation free (ODF) status. In CLTS, children are often encouraged to be change agents to help influence their family and community to improve sanitation and hygiene behaviors. However, some strategies may pose a risk to child safety.

Date: 11 June 2018


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