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Call for applications! Desk based review on Tackling Slippage:

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The CLTS Knowledge Hub at IDS is seeking a consultant to carry out a desk-based study (with the potential for field work) on the topic of tackling slippage of open defecation free status.

Download details here or read more below. Deadline for applications: Monday 13th May 2019

Slippage has been defined as the return to previous unhygienic behaviours or the inability of some or all community members to continue to meet all open defecation free criteria (WSSCC, 2016). Slippage rates vary widely between and within countries. Monitoring of ODF slippage and remedial actions are not systematic, despite widespread recognition of the issue. In its connection to both behaviour change and physical and technical challenges slippage is inevitably complex and dynamic. Factors that lead to slippage are highly varied, context specific and interactive. New practices to identify and address slippage need to be identified rapidly and widely shared. Most literature on CLTS and sustainability has been on setting interventions up for success and ensuring the enabling factors for continued toilet use are in place when designing and implementing programmes. There has been limited attention on ways slippage can be tackled in communities where ODF was previously reached.

The main aims for this review are to answer the following questions:

  1. What are the ways of identifying slippage, patterns and different types and definitions of slippage used?
  2. What are the factors that are leading to slippage and how do they interact?
  3. How is slippage currently being addressed? What practical examples of context-specific innovations and practices to address slippage are there?
  4. What are the key learnings, recommendations, ways forward and future research needed?

Addressing these questions will require the following questions to be considered:

Defining, monitoring and verifying ODF status

  • What ODF criteria are currently being used in different contexts? Did it require 100% usage all of the time? Did it include the eradication of faeces in the open, or cutting the oral-faecal chain completely (i.e. including handwashing, food hygiene practices). 
  • Is a phased or a staged approach to ODF used?
  • What monitoring and verification process are followed?
  • Have definitions changed over time?

Identification and extent/patterns of slippage

  • How is slippage being defined by different stakeholders?
  • Is slippage being monitored? If so how?
  • Have patterns of slippage been identified?
  • Who is most likely to slip back to practicing open defecation?

Factors which can lead to slippage

  • What are the factors that can lead to slippage; how do they vary according to context, and interact with each other?
  • How are factors for slippage identified?
  • How do these factors affect interventions to tackling slippage?

Ways to address slippage

Ways of addressing slippage will vary according to the factors behind it, and the type of slippage it is.  The main aim of this review is to uncover successful examples and case studies of programmes in a variety of contexts where slippage has been reversed.

  • Are there typologies of situations/factors or contexts which result in slippage that can be identified, with potential solutions to address each type?
  • Will different solutions be necessary according to each context? In which case, how can we help practitioners and field workers identify and develop these? 
  • What delivery mechanisms for interventions tackling slippage are used? Who are the actors involved?
  • What are the additional costs involved? How are these budgeted for?
  • What are the implications for relationships with donors/funders?
  • How are these actions monitored?   

What the review will look like

We are seeking someone to carry out a review on this critical topic and find out what evidence and information is currently available, and what further research is necessary. The consultant will interview people working in different organisations in Africa, Asia and South East Asia, and find documentation relating to the above subject matter: experiences, knowledge, challenges, considerations, identifying specific activities and innovations aimed at addressing slippage. The review output will be an issue of Frontiers of CLTS and will hopefully be a starting point for practical guidance for programmes. The successful applicant will also be a speaker in a webinar and other audio-visual outputs such as a short video to further publicise the results. We envisage this being approximately 15-20 days, split between desk-based research, interviewing key stakeholders (by phone and/or email), analysis, writing up and presenting the findings. The precise focus, structure and scale will be agreed upon between the Hub and the successful applicant. Initial outlines and drafts will be shared with the Hub for comment throughout the process.

Potential fieldwork

If suitable examples of interventions are found that require country visits these will be considered and additional budget allocated. If country visits are undertaken the number of days can be extended to 30 days and the Knowledge Hub will cover travel (economy flights) and reasonable expenses. 

Application details
We warmly welcome applications for this review, please send a 1-2 page application outlining how you envisage carrying out this study, a proposed timeline, your relevant experience, plus your CV and daily rates to n.vernon@ids.ac.uk. You can download a pdf version of the call for applications here

Deadline for applications: Monday 13th May 2019
Deadline for final version of Frontiers publication: Wednesday 31st July 2019

Date: 16 April 2019
Resource types: