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Sanitation remains a difficult challenge in Bolivia. It is unlikely that the country will attain the MDGs in 2015. The situation in rural areas, where 25% of the population still lives, is particularly critical. UNICEF Bolivia came to know about CLTS from the World Bank’s Water and Sanitation Programme (WSP) iN Indonesia. As CLTS seemed to offer potential for positive change, UNICEF started a limited application of CLTS in 2007, after Kamal Kar had introduced the approach with training workshops in La Paz and Llalagua in December 2006. Participants came from Bolivia, Peru, Brazil and Chile and included representatives from at least ten different organizations, for example UNICEF, WSP, Plan, Save the children and JICA.

In 2009 UNICEF agreed with the Ministry of Environment and Water to launch a pilot project to test the application of CLTS under the conditions prevailing in the country. The objectives of the pilot project are:

(i) test the methodology in Bolivia and the conditions of its application,

(ii) identify key aspects to be addressed to scale up its application under the conditions prevailing in Latin America (ie. Bolivia) which might be different from that in Africa or Asia,

(iii) show decision makers in the National Government as well as cooperation agencies the results and potential use of CLTS as a mean to increase sanitation coverage in rural Bolivia.