Displaying items 46 - 60 of 103 in total
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    Policy Analysis Of Abortion In Indonesia: The Dynamic Of State Power, Human Need And Women's Right, IDS Bulletin, 39.3

    The women of Indonesia with unwanted pregnancies face stark choices: giving birth and facing social ostracism, loss of family support network, and even harsh criminal punishment; or an abortion from a clandestine provider, risking serious injury or death. The complexity of Indonesian life is multifaceted. Ruled by multiple formal and traditional legal systems, it remains embroiled in an on-going struggle to establish its identity during the process of democratization and a strengthening of Islamic values in a time when the vast majority of its population, as Muslims, feel under attack by the West’s ‘war on terror’. The campaign to bring in a new health bill including the decriminalization of abortion has been challenged, facing lack of consensus that high maternal mortality rates are primarily caused by clandestine abortions, varying reasons behind reforms to the health law, and lack of political will to see through the change because of difference of opinion. …

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    Promoting Safer Sex Through Pleasure: Lessons From 15 Countries, Development, 52.1

    The pursuit of pleasure is one of the primary reasons people have sex; and sex is the most common way people contract HIV worldwide. Yet information about how to have (or deliver) pleasurable sex and stay healthy are largely missing from health resources and HIV prevention campaigns. Wendy Knerr and Anne Philpott explore how ‘erotophobia’ in the health and development sectors is hindering effective safer sex promotion, and highlight best practices from The Global Mapping of Pleasure, 2nd Edition, a collection of case studies on pleasure and safer sex communication from countries and contexts around the world. …

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    Promoting Sexual Empowerment In Community-Based Programmes, Development, 52.1

    Hesperian is developing an action resource (book- and web-based tool) that will complement its widely used Where Women Have No Doctor and help community activists work more effectively on all the topics in that book, published originally in 1997. One issue the international team developing the new resource has prioritized is how to help community activists foster sexual empowerment for women. Lucille C. Atkin et al. …

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    Promoting Sexual Rights Through Human Rights Education: Experiences At Grassroots In Turkey, IDS Bulletin, 37.5

    Control of women’s sexuality is the root cause of many women’s human rights violations, such as ‘honour’ crimes, early and forced marriages and female genital mutilation. The Turkish organisation Women for Women’s Human Rights (WWHR) – New Ways, contests this control of women’s sexuality, taking an affirmative approach to sexuality to open up space for women to claim their rights. In 2004, WWHR led a campaign for reform of the Turkish penal code which resulted in over 30 amendments on sexual and bodily rights of women and girls in Turkey, including criminalisation of marital rape and removal of a provision granting sentence reductions for ‘honour’ killings. They have also run human rights trainings for over 4,500 women throughout Turkey which include a module on sexual rights promoting the idea that women have a right to sexual pleasure. …

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    Putting The Sexy Back Into Safer Sex: The Pleasure Project, IDS Bulletin, 37.5

    Pleasure – and even sex itself – have been noticeably absent from much of dialogue surrounding sexually transmitted infections and the spread of HIV/AIDS. Safer sex and good sex are not mutually exclusive, yet most established educational programmes give the impression that they are, by using only fear of risk and disease to motivate their audience to practise safer sex. Yet evidence suggests that positive incentives provide the most effective way to get people to want to have safer sex. The Pleasure Project works with these incentives – pleasure and desire – to build bridges between the pleasure/sex industry and the safer sex world. …

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    Race, Culture, Power, Sex, Desire, Love: Writing In 'Men Who Have Sex With Men', IDS Bulletin, 37.5

    Many names are given to identities and practices that suggest or involve sexual activity between men: queer, gay, homosexual, dandy, batty man, queen, bachelor, fag, etc. In international development, however, ‘men who have sex with men’ (MSM) has fast become the preferred descriptor for the myriad expressions of same sex desire by men. This term was originally proposed as an alternative to ‘gay’ or ‘bisexual’ by grassroots activists and healthcare workers concerned about the impact of sexually transmitted diseases in their communities. This was a radical gesture at the time, a sharp refusal of the dominant narratives about sexual orientation and sexual behaviour that were being relayed by organisations led by white, gay-identified men. …

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    Reclaiming Travesti Histories, IDS Bulletin, 37.5

    In pre-colonial Peru the distinctions between male and female were far more flexible than they are today. A traditional ‘travesti’ or transgender/transvestite identity and culture existed and played an important role in Andean religion and society. Colonial and subsequently development influences suppressed these identities and communities, although the Peruvian travesti remained. In contemporary Peru travestis face violence from the public and police, as well as economic exclusion and discrimination by health services. …

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    Reflections On The Construction of Heteronormativity, Development, 52.1

    Jaya Sharma shares her concerns about assuming that norms govern us entirely and of constructing a binary between the ‘normative’ and the ‘non-normative’. She argues that such a binary can be arrogant and privilege as ‘ideal’ those seen as ‘non-normative’. It is perhaps closer to reality and more empowering to see the play of norms as a process of negotiation rather than placing them in a hegemonic and binary framework. …

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    Researching South African Youth, Gender and Sexuality Within The Context Of HIV/AIDS, Development, 52.1

    In the context of HIV/AIDS, youth have become central to contemporary South African social thought and educational policy concerns regarding changing behaviour, addressing gender inequalities, safe sex and preventing the spread of the disease. Yet we know very little about how youth in specific social contexts give meaning to gender and sexuality. Greater understanding of these processes would appear vital to successful educational strategies in the protection against HIV/AIDS in South Africa. Deevia Bhana and Rob Pattman argue that the lives and identities of young men and women must be central in any initiative to change behaviour. …

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    Save us from Saviours

    This 10 minute film 'Save us from Saviours' explores the work of the sex worker collective Veshya Anyay Mukti Parishad (VAMP). VAMP has been providing HIV and development interventions in India since 1996. The film introduces the viewer to the collective and follows three members – Kamlabai, Shabana and Raju, who is the son of a sex worker. It highlights how they mobilise sex workers to claim their rights and support their community. …

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    Saying No To Forced Early Retirement From Sex: Time To Broaden The Scope Of HIV Prevention In Kenya, Development, 52.1

    HIV prevention messages have an impact on people's sexualities in ways that are unimaginable. In Kenya, consultations with HIV positive people under the Maanisha programme reveal that HIV prevention messages work to regulate and stigmatize sexual expressions among people already infected with HIV. Regrettably, these stereotypical strategies are promoted by health experts and HIV/AIDS service providers. Interventions must break with stereotypes and create spaces for behaviour change strategies that begin with positive peoples lived experiences, acknowledging their complexities and working with them in a more equitable and mutually respectful interaction. …

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    Sex And The Rights Of Man, IDS Bulletin, 37.5

    What can men’s interest be in the social and sexual revolution being proposed by advocates for sexual rights? The first answer to this question is to recognise that some men’s sexual rights have long been violated. Those men who ‘betray’ their gender through their ‘feminine’ representation and/or sexual relations with other men are especially vulnerable to such violation. Violence maintains the gender and sexuality hierarchy by keeping the men ‘who are not men enough’ in their place. But what about the men who appear to be, or strive to be, ‘man enough’? What can be said of their sexual rights? Perhaps the most basic demand of advocates for sexual rights is that people be free to live their sexual lives without coercion. …

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    Sex Is A Gift From God: Paralysis And Potential In Sex Education In Malawi

    Religious organisations are often the site for some of the most negative prescriptive messages about sexuality and might seem a difficult place to raise such issues. However, there are glimmers within religious institutions of recognition of the power of pleasure. In this chapter, Bertrand-Dansereau describes how secular sexuality education interventions create even less space for discussion of pleasure than religious interventions in Malawi, and how negativity about sex and sexuality limits their effectiveness. Bertrand-Dansereau finds unexpectedly that in Malawi, church sexuality education was far more open and sex-positive than secular alternatives, which tried to motivate people to safer behaviours through fear of disease. …

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    SexPolitics And Rights In Development, Development, 52.1

    This article provides an introduction to the Development special issue on Sexuality and Development. The articles in the issue are based on discussions held at a workshop on Sexuality and the Development Industry at the Institute of Development Studies in April 2008. The aim of the journal is to examine international development's connections with sexuality and look for more creative and constructive means of engagement. It sets out why sexuality is an important issue to address and explores why the development industry has failed to constructively take on the issue in the past as well as to propose how to do it better. …

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    Sexualities And Development: A Story In Pictures, IDS Bulletin, 37.5

    Current debates on sexuality and development need to be seen in relation to a longer historical cycle. This contribution provides a pictorial overview of the last three decades, laying out the diverse influences from the 1970s, which produced both the Washington Consensus and Foucault’s History of Sexuality, through to the current paradoxes of the 1990s and 2000s, with advances in sexual rights struggles pitted against the rise in conservatisms and fundamentalisms. This time line roots current sexual rights struggles in recent history, showing how the same themes resurface and gain new meanings over time. Throughout this history, how does development deal with sexuality? Development language regarding sexuality is far from transparent. …