Displaying items 31 - 45 of 82 in total
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    Monitoramento Da Lei Maria Da Penha - Relatório Preliminar De Pesquisa

    This is the preliminary research report from the Maria Da Penha Law Observatory which monitors the implementation and application of the Maria Da Penha on violence against women in Brazil. …

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    Moroccan Divorce Law, Family Court Judges, and Spouses' Claims: Who Pays the Cost when a Marriage is over?

    This chapter explores the impact that legal reform has had on Moroccan divorce practice. The Mudawwanat al-Usra (Family Law Compilation) of 2004 included a new provision under which courts should grant a judicial divorce to either spouse on the grounds of marital discord (shiqāq). Since the evidential requirements for establishing the grounds of shiqāq are easily met, the numbers of judicial divorces increased exponentially during 2004-7. …

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    Narratives of Egyptian Marriages

    Mulki Al-Sharmani critically examines the institutional narrative of marriage constructed and sustained by substantive family laws, juxtaposed against the lived experience of marriage for many women in Egypt. Based on the doctrines of classical schools of Islamic jurisprudence, Egypt’s family laws uphold a contractual model of marriage in which a husband acquires the right to a wife’s physical and sexual availability in the conjugal home in return for the obligation to provide for her and their children. …

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    O que Torna as leis de Enfrentamento da Violência Doméstica mais Eficazes?

    Domestic violence against women has gained worldwide attention as a form of discrimination as well as a violation of women’s human rights. An estimated one in three women in the world is affected, independent of their social standing and cultural background. In many countries around the world, laws are now in place making domestic violence against women a crime. Yet implementation often lags behind legal reforms. …

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    Organizing to Monitor Implementation of the Maria da Penha Law in Brazil

    The Maria da Penha Law (LMP), which was introduced in 2006, is the first Brazilian federal code to address domestic and familial violence against women. The law is the outcome of thirty years of struggles led by Brazilian women and feminist movements. LMP is an extensive legal instrument that is meant to prevent and combat domestic and familial violence against women.  …

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    Our Bodies, Our Selves: The Bangladesh Perspective

    In Bangladesh there is a well-documented reign of patriarchal institutions and practices, causing women to have little control over their bodies and restricting their experience of the completeness of a vital body and a vital mind. However, this control over women’s bodies appears to be shifting, and nearly all the key elements tat constitute ‘bodily integrity’ are in a state of flux. Whether this is the beginning of a new era with weakened structures, norms and customs remains to be seen, but it certainly is a change. The male-dominated society and economy is now experiencing an increasing infiltration by women of all ages and social classes, with significant implications for siciety’s and men’s hold over women and their bodies. …

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    Paid Work, Women's Empowerment and Inclusive Growth: Transforming the Structures of Constraint

    Drawing on household survey data collected in Egypt, Ghana and Bangladesh as part of the Pathways of Women’s Empowerment Research Partners’ Consortium, this report provides insights into the ‘resource’ pathways that enhance women’s agency and thereby contribute to the inclusiveness of the economic growth process. Moreover, it looks at the the extent to which the structure of economic opportunities, generated by a country’s growth strategies, translated into positive impacts on women’s lives in these three country contexts.  …

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    Pathways Middle East Hub Final Synthesis Report

    Final synthesis report from the Middle East Hub of Pathways of Women’s Empowerment (Pathways) - an international research and communications programme that has focused for the five years from 2006-2011 on understanding and influencing efforts to bring about positive change in women’s lives. After an introduction to the Middle East research projects within the four research themes, the report analyses selected research. Highlights from the ME Hub are given along with a detailed list of research outputs. …

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    Pathways Of Women's Empowerment Through Legal Strategies: The Case Of Maria Da Penha Law (Brazil)

    This paper presented to the 'Pathways: What are we Learning?' Conference held in Cairo from 20-24 January 2009, aims at identifying and analysing pathways/conditions/possibilities of women’s empowerment related to the application of Maria da Penha Law (Law no. 11. 340/2006), the first Brazilian federal law to combat domestic violence against women. Maria da Penha Law rises from thirty years of struggles led by Brazilian women and feminist movements. …

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    Policy Analysis Of Abortion In Indonesia: The Dynamic Of State Power, Human Need And Women's Right, IDS Bulletin, 39.3

    The women of Indonesia with unwanted pregnancies face stark choices: giving birth and facing social ostracism, loss of family support network, and even harsh criminal punishment; or an abortion from a clandestine provider, risking serious injury or death. The complexity of Indonesian life is multifaceted. Ruled by multiple formal and traditional legal systems, it remains embroiled in an on-going struggle to establish its identity during the process of democratization and a strengthening of Islamic values in a time when the vast majority of its population, as Muslims, feel under attack by the West’s ‘war on terror’. The campaign to bring in a new health bill including the decriminalization of abortion has been challenged, facing lack of consensus that high maternal mortality rates are primarily caused by clandestine abortions, varying reasons behind reforms to the health law, and lack of political will to see through the change because of difference of opinion. …

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    Promoting Sexual Rights Through Human Rights Education: Experiences At Grassroots In Turkey, IDS Bulletin, 37.5

    Control of women’s sexuality is the root cause of many women’s human rights violations, such as ‘honour’ crimes, early and forced marriages and female genital mutilation. The Turkish organisation Women for Women’s Human Rights (WWHR) – New Ways, contests this control of women’s sexuality, taking an affirmative approach to sexuality to open up space for women to claim their rights. In 2004, WWHR led a campaign for reform of the Turkish penal code which resulted in over 30 amendments on sexual and bodily rights of women and girls in Turkey, including criminalisation of marital rape and removal of a provision granting sentence reductions for ‘honour’ killings. They have also run human rights trainings for over 4,500 women throughout Turkey which include a module on sexual rights promoting the idea that women have a right to sexual pleasure. …

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    Quotas: Add Women And Stir?

    At the Millennium Summit world leaders committed to reducing extreme poverty through a series of targets encompassed within the MDGs, with a deadline of 2015. One of these was to promote gender equality and empower women, and the ‘proportion of seats held by women in national parliament’ was set as a key indicator. With the MDG Review Summit meeting in September 2010, this is an opportunity to consider whether the proportion of women in parliament continues to be the most adequate proxy for women’s political empowerment. This IDS Bulletin explores what the quota has meant as a motorway to women’s accession to political power by drawing on research findings from the Pathways of Women’s Empowerment Research Programme Consortium (‘Pathways’), as well as a series of articles from a special seminar in the Brazilian National Congress as part of this programme, and contributions from other country case studies. …

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    Quotas: A Pathway Of Political Empowerment?

    Over the last 20 years, the problem of low levels of representation of women in political office has been mobilising women, and especially feminists, throughout the world. The adoption of quotas has become a much-used tool to address the challenge of increasing women's political representation, and as a route to enhancing women's political empowerment. In Latin America, many countries have adopted quota systems, but with widely varying effects. This article takes stock of Latin American experience and asks to what extent quota systems have served as a pathway of women into politics. …

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    Rape In Pakistan - The Real Verdict

    The gang-rape of Mukhtaran Mai launched a nine-year court battle that concluded with a verdict by the Supreme Court of Pakistan acquitting all but one of the accused. Her case illustrates how both the formal and informal systems of justice share the same hostility to women who defy social norms and demand justice in cases of rape, says Ayesha Khan. …

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    Readjusting Women's Too Many Rights: The State, the Public Voice, Women's Rights in South Yemen

    This chapter discusses the processes that led to the promulgation of the two Yemeni family codes of 1974 in the South and 1992 after the Unification. The author will look from a larger societal perspective at who the actors were in drafting the codes and what kind of public debates were allowed as part of the two processes. In particular, she will discuss the theoretical implications of a development gone reverse; does modernisation always bring women more rights? What kind of rhetoric a state has to turn into when it takes away women rights that gained popular approval? …