Displaying items 136 - 150 of 198 in total
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    Sexual Pleasure Empowers Women!, Contestations, Issue 2

    Images of women as victims are rampant in gender and development. This is particularly the case in discussions of sexuality, where the world is portrayed as so fraught with danger, it seems almost impossible to imagine women enjoying themselves. This focus on the negative can be paralysing – both in terms of ease with one’s own body, and in terms of mobilising around women’s wants and desires. And such narratives dovetail with religious right agendas to protect women’s chastity. …

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    Social Consensus, Democratic Conflict The Debate On The Decriminalisation Of Abortion In Uruguay, IDS Bulletin, 39.3

    Since the restoration of democracy to Uruguay in 1985, every year has seen initiatives to decriminalize abortions. Strong support and public awareness focussing on women’s rights and personal freedom by advocacy groups has bolstered public opinion in support of woman’s choice from 25 per cent to 65 per cent, between 1985 and 2007. Despite this wave of grassroots support, powerful politicians remain wedded to more conservative values, managing to defeat every decriminalization bill presented to date. But the increasing environment of democratization and support for rights and choice, buttressed by a wide range of civil society actors, including advocacy groups, CBOs, academics and politicians, may provide sufficient pressure that the government accepts the newest bill on the Defence on the Right to Sexual and Reproductive Health. …

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    Tempos De Mudança, Vidas Em Mutação: O Empoderamento De Mulheres Na Bahia Através Das Gerações

    This paper was presented at Fazendo Genero (Doing Gender) 8 held at the Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina from 25-28 August 2008. The purpose of the study was to identify and analyse changes in women's lives in Salvador, Bahia over three successive generations, and how these changes relate to processes of women's empowerment. …

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    Teoria E Praxis Do Feminismo Acadêmico. Fazendo Gênero 9

    This paper presented at Fazendo Genero (Doing Gender) 9 focuses on the Pathways Latin America project which examined the struggles for the realization of reproductive rights in Brazil, following and retracing campaigns for the legalization of abortion. The project also identified and analysed the strategies employed, and the particular contributions and roles of feminists in NGO networks, and in the academic world. …

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    Terms Of Contact And Touching Change: Investigating Pleasure In An HIV Epidemic, IDS Bulletin, 37.5

    Western-led discussions of sexual health have foregrounded warnings of the dangers of sex. Yet, pleasure is one important reason why people have sex. Sexual health work must open up discussion of how pleasure can be experienced with less risk. There are challenges in addressing pleasure in work on safer sex. …

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    The Ethics Of Empowerment

    In this article, Koggel reflects on the various influences on her thinking on gender and development, including a research project in Indonesia to explore the possible gaps between the World Bank’s understanding of empowerment and social science theory and NGO practice prior to mainstreaming the concept; capabilities theory and the difference between empowerment and agency; and the rhetoric of empowerment. She discusses the importance of contextual analyses and of the limitations of generalized policies or principles designed to promote ‘development’ or empower women. An important lesson for development ethicists is the need to pay attention to and analyse relations of power – including the overarching factor of economic globalization in the form of neo-liberal and capitalist assumptions and structures. Another important lesson is the one she learned from Sen's complex analysis of poverty: that ethical issues of development are as relevant to ‘developed’ countries as they are to poor ‘developing’ countries. …

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    The Limits Of Women's Quotas In Brazil

    In this article, I examine the case of Brazil which, unlike many other Latin American countries, is an example of where quotas are not working. Drawing on over ten years of research and exploring the dynamics of a varied group of political parties, I contest that male resistance is not the only reason behind this failure. Vagueness around the quota law and a lack of sanctions, together with the elitist nature of politics in Brazil are all contributing factors. My research has also revealed a few anomalies, showing that contrary to much of the literature, women would seem to fare better in elections within less developed and smaller states in Brazil. …

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    The NGOization Of Women's Movements And Its Implications For Feminist Organizing

    A panel from the the AWID Forum held in Cape Town from 14-17 November 2008. Dzodzi Tsikata discussed how women’s NGOs in Ghana have responded to some of the challenges they face because of NGOization. She recounted the history of NGOization in Ghana and the lessons that women’s NGOs learned from it, and concluded that “while NGOization still remains a huge issue for the women’s movement in Ghana, I think that women’s organisations in Ghana have come to recognize by their work that NGOs are not synonymous with civil society nor with the women’s movement. ” Saba Khatak placed the women’s movement in Pakistan in the larger context of Pakistani politics. …

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    The Participation Paradox: Quotas Policy In Latin America

    Within the last 20 years, the problem of women’s participation in formal power positions has been mobilizing women, especially feminists, throughout Latin America. After over half a century since gaining the right to vote, Latin-American women have recognized that, in practice, this fought for right did not guarantee the right to be elected as well. Indeed, Latin American women have remained marginalized from power, kept from participating in greater numbers in deliberative power structures. In these circumstances, the implementation of quota systems for women in a context of affirmative action policies has figured as a major goal in the mobilisation of women in their struggle for access to power structures. …

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    The Pathways Of Women's Empowerment Research Programme Consortium, Gender And Development, 16.2

    Tessa Lewin introduces Pathways of Women’s Empowerment RPC, explaining its purpose in bringing together academics and activists from five hubs to understand the factors influencing women’s empowerment. The article elaborates on the four themes of Pathways, namely ‘Conceptions of Women’s Empowerment’, ‘Building Constituencies for Equality and Justice’, ‘Empowering Work’ and ‘Changing Narratives of Sexuality’, before identifying some of the common factors which hamper women’s empowerment and highlighting some of the research being done by Pathways researchers. …

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    The Right To Abortion: Briefing From Brazil, Open Democracy

    Cecilia Sardenberg discusses the challenges facing Brazilian feminists and their supporters in the campaign to legalize abortion in the country beyond the current strict limits. She reports on the recent decision at the Brasilia gathering of the second Conference for Public Policies for Women (II CNPM) in support of legislation to sanctioning abortion on demand – a significant step beyond the current situation where it was legal only if the pregnancy results from rape or when it put the mother’s life at risk. Cecilia Sardenberg is the director and a founding member of the Nucleus of Interdisciplinary Women’s Studies (NEIM) at the Federal University of Bahia, Brazil. …

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    Time To Call The Bluff: (De)-Constructing ‘Women's Vulnerability’, HIV And Sexual Health

    Jerker Edström argues that common interpretations of vulnerability in gender and development discourse, policy and practice tend to reinforce essentialisms about men and women. These interpretations compromise our ability to think clearly about the structural influences on HIV and sexual health, as well as its relations to gender inequity and women’s empowerment. He examines some predominant constructions of women in the AIDS response, based on the notion of vulnerability, and suggests how unhelpful the notion of vulnerability is to the political project of women’s empowerment in redressing inequality and injustice. …

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    Trilhas Do Poder De Mulheres. Experiencias Internacionais Em Acoes Afirmativas, Graficos Do Congresso Nacional, Brasilia

    This book provides a summary of a conference held at the Brazilian National Congress in June 2007 on international experiences of affirmative action. The purpose of the conference was to identify and analyse, on the one hand, the shortcomings of the current Brazilian quota system and potential sources of support in congress for a change; and, on the other, highlight successful experiences of increasing women’s political representation in legislative bodies in other countries. Representatives from Argentina, Costa Rica, Bangladesh, Rwanda and Palestine, and from the Inter Parliamentary Union (IPU) in Europe, were brought together to discuss “lessons learned” from mechanisms at work in their countries, in order to contribute to the development of an alternative proposal for political reform in Brazil and other countries in a similar situation regarding women’s low representation in legislating bodies. …

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    Unsafe Abortion: A Development Issue, IDS Bulletin 39.3

    Abortion has become an ever more controversial issue, provoking strong reactions both ‘for’ and ‘against’. Language used in disputes over whether or not women should have access to safe and legal abortion indicates just how polarised debates have become: pro-choice versus pro-life; pro-abortion versus anti-choice. As the anti-abortion agenda has become coupled with other conservative agendas, such as ‘pro-abstinence’, ‘pro-chastity’ and ‘anti-contraception’, an increasingly assertive movement has evolved. The extension of these conservative forces to parts of the world where thousands of women die every year because they were unable to access safe abortion and protect themselves from HIV infection, has turned this polarized dispute into an urgent development issue. …

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    VII Annual Encampment Of Women Rural Workers And Indigenous Women In Bahia, Brazil

    This article describes the annual gathering of over a thousand women rural workers from the Brazilian state of Bahia, to share their experiences in the struggle for land and in the struggle against all forms of violence but especially domestic violence; and to remind themselves that, as women, they need to demand to be treated with respect by both their colleagues in struggle and by society at large. …