Displaying items 196 - 210 of 277 in total
  • Archive Resource

    Voice And Women's Empowerment: Mapping A Research Agenda, Pathways Working Paper 2

    The number of women in public office is an inadequate proxy for assessing ‘women’s political voice’ in public decision-making as it is based on the assumption that female public officials will - by virtue of their gender - seek to promote women’s rights and gender specific issues. This Working Paper seeks to explain how a critical analysis of the concept of ‘representation’ can help researchers understand the reasons why numbers alone is not enough to ensure an amplification of women’s public voice and substantive transformation of policy. …

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    'Voice' As A Pathway To Women's Empowerment: Reflections On The Indian Experience

    This chapter explores different ways in which ‘voice’ has been a pathway to empowerment in India. Three major streams are discussed, the women’s movement, official efforts to institutionalize women’s voice, and decentralization with reservation which has guaranteed a space in local governance to women. The manner of engagement between the women’s movement and the State is reviewed. A more detailed discussion of the Panchayat institutions with empirical evidence on women’s participation is presented. …

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    Voicing Demands: Feminist Activism in Transitional Contexts

    Voicing demands is a collection of analytical narratives of what has happened to feminist voice, a key pathway to women's empowerment. These narratives depart fromthe existing debate on women's political engagement in formal institutions to examine feminist activism for building and sustaining constituencies through raising, negotiating and legitimising women's voice under different contexts. …

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    Vulnerabilities Of Feminist Engagement And The Challenge Of Developmentalism In The South: What Alternatives?

    The paper examines the challenge of feminist engagement in the South today. The analysis proceeds from the position that feminist engagement has registered multiple successes with a major break through in the ways in which it has made considerable dents into dominant development discourses. However, I argue, that this very success has created inherent vulnerabilities, with success appearing as a double edged sword whose disintegrative effects are much fiercer and much more anchored, in terms of power regimes. By trying to have a command into the development arena feminism had to reshape itself – even at the basic level of being understood. …

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    Watching Women Watching TV: Lessons From The Field

    This is a presentation given by Samia Rahim at the Cultural Crossroads Conference held in Hong Kong on 20 June 2010 on research conducted into how women in Bangladesh interacted with television and the media. The research countered dominant discourse which devalues women's relationship with television and in using a wide range of methodologies across a range of research locations uncovered that women do not only use television to accumulate new knowledge, but also strategies, tactics and ways to handle various situations. …

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    Well-Chosen Compromises? Feminists Legitimizing Voice in Bangladesh

    This chapter explores the strategies and choices of feminists in organising voice and mobilising support in a post-authoritarian Bangladesh. It provides an analytical narrative of how three national level feminist organisations strengthen their voice by: a) packaging their demands strategically to appeal to different actors; b) building coalitions and networks with other civil society actors, c) using personal networks to access politicians and state actors, d) creating transnational links to exert pressure on the state. …

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    What Do Men Have To Do With Women's Empowerment? Series Of Interviews

    Zelal Ayman, Ulrika Holmstrom, Monica Williams, Marcos Nascimento, Kuhu Das, Dean Peacock, Carolyn Hannan, and Anita Gurumurthy reflect briefly on the question, “What do men have to do with women’s empowerment?” …

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    What Makes Domestic Violence Legislation More Effective?

    Domestic violence against women has gained worldwide attention as a form of discrimination as well as a violation of women’s human rights. An estimated one in three women in the world is affected, independent of their social standing and cultural background. In many countries around the world, laws are now in place making domestic violence against women a crime. Yet implementation often lags behind legal reforms. …

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    Whose Money Is It?': On Misconceiving Female Autonomy And Economic Empowerment In Low-Income Households

    This article argues that the slip between policy intension and outcome in policies addressing women and money lies in three neo-liberal assumptions: that individuals have clear title to their earnings, that markets are not socially constructed and that viewing individuals and families as isolated units of subsistence is a valid analytical method. It argues that critiques of development policy that are rooted in individualised conceptualisations and measurement of female autonomy and empowerment do not adequately challenge these assumptions, instead they tend to rely on them themselves. It also suggests that feminist critiques are based on the double standard that women should have clear title to their earnings and assets, while men should be supporting the family. Using research undertaken in South India, this article demonstrates that the social construction of credit, labour, housing and marriage markets determine the extent to which women can benefit from improved livelihoods. …

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    Women And Paid Work In Pakistan

    This chapter offers an analysis of women and paid work with a view to identifying where there are changes underway in this area that may play a role in leading to equitable gender relations in Pakistan in the long term. The discussion is based on existing research on the subject, which comes from a variety of disciplines. Much of the research that will be discussed below is preliminary and based on micro-studies, or on larger quantitative surveys that may have ignored some of the diversity within the country. Women in Pakistan live in a society that is highly stratified according to class, caste, region and cultural variations, all of which have implications for their lives and opportunities. …

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    Women And Religion In Bangladesh And Pakistan

    With growing observance of the veil, a rise in faith-based schooling, and the increasing popularity of Islamic television channels, religious activity has come to play a more and more significant part in the lives of women in South Asia. Pathways’ research sought to explore what the changes in the cultural and political landscape signal for women’s understanding of self and their ability to live “freely” in the world. Does religion become all encompassing and stifle women’s sense of self? Or do women find ways to use new idioms to feel empowered? …

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    Women And Religion In Bangladesh: New Paths

    In south Asia as elsewhere in the world, religion has come to play an increasing role in shaping and reshaping women’s lives. This process is a particular challenge to people like Firdous Azim, a feminist who “grew up” intellectually and politically via involvement in the women’s movement of the 1980s in Bangladesh. The activism of that period was explicitly secular; its main priorities were the issues of rights, inequalities and violence prevalent in a young state which had achieved independence only in 1971. Firdous Azim is professor in the department of English and the humanities at BRAC University, Dhaka, Bangladesh. …

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    Women Engaging Politically: Beyond Magic Bullets and Motorways

    This paper adopts an upside-down approach to women's political empowerment. While the number of women we need to get into legislatures has often assumed centrestage, this paper takes women's pathways as its starting point. In so doing, it challenges the narrow conception of women's political engagement as occupying formal positions and seeks to present a more nuanced perspective on the spaces, relationships and ways of working that influence power hierarchies and dynamics.  …

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    Women Health Workers Creating Particular Pathways Of Change

    The Lady Health Worker Programme (LHWP) is a major public sector initiative to provide reproductive health care to women in Pakistan, employing almost 100,000 women as community health workers. The LHWP directly addresses women’s reproductive health needs by providing them with information, basic services and access to further care. The experience of LHWs can provide valuable insight into the impact of paid work on their lives and communities, and how processes of women’s empowerment are shaped. The LHWP is a huge employer of women and the most important link between communities and primary health care in the country. …

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    Women In Local Government in Pakistan

    This study investigates the ‘criss-cross’ processes through which women in Pakistan become empowered, focusing on how the larger institutional set-up (whether military or non-military) helps women achieve their goals. It explores how some of the major initiatives from civil society have contributed to women’s voices at the local government level, and also looks at individual case studies of women when they either surmount or fail to surmount societal pressures in their individual lives. The research involves qualitative interviews at all three tiers of government, and mapping out NGO initiatives, tracing how women's voices have arisen and how demands have affected policy. …