Social trends and gender norms

Societal norms and attitudes that favour gender equality
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Do Some Men Use Violence Against Women and How Can We Prevent It? Quantitative Findings from the United Nations Multi-country Study on Men and Violence in Asia and the Pacific

How do masculinities relate to men’s perceptions and perpetrations of violence against women? What do these gendered norms, identities and practices mean for violence prevention?

Marriage, Motherhood and Masculinity in the Global Economy: Reconfiguration of Personal and Economic Life

The informalisation and irregularity of work, and the feminisation of the global labour force are two critical outcomes of globalisation. What does the feminisation of the labour market mean for men and women’s experiences of gender equality?  Women’s increased access to work reflects multiple interrelated influences: shifts towards gender equity such as increased access to education for women and girls interact with deepening inequalities such as growing levels of landlessness and increased costs of living for all.

Care in Context: Men's Unpaid Work in 20 Countries, 1965–2003

What are the national structures that hinder and facilitate men’s unpaid work?  The author proposes that national context, presented here as women's employment practices and policies, influences men's unpaid work behaviors by shaping the benefits of adapting, the terms of bargaining, and the ease of adhering to established gender ideologies and norms. She finds that men's unpaid work time increases with national levels of women's employment.

A Feminist Political Economy Analysis of Public Policies Related to Care: A Thematic Review

What is the importance of unpaid care in the fight for the economic empowerment of women and girls? And is unpaid care a factor in national policy agendas? There is a large amount of evidence about the extent of unpaid care work that women and girls do, and its contributions to both the economy and human development outcomes. However, since the bulk of care work falls to women and girls, the responsibilities can undermine their rights, and limit their opportunities, capabilities and choices, impeding their empowerment.

Gender Equality and Economic Growth: Is There a Win Win?

Does economic growth in itself contribute to gender equality? This resource ultimately suggests that the relationship between gender equality and economic growth is an asymmetrical one. Evidence implies that improvements in gender equality, particularly in education and employment, contribute to economic growth far more than economic growth contributes to gender equality, especially in terms of health, well being, and rights.

Global Pathways to Men’s Caregiving: Mixed Methods Findings from the International Men and Gender Equality Survey and the Men Who Care Study (2014)

Promoting men’s participation in unpaid care work is an important step towards bringing about long-term sustainable gender equality. This study sought to understand the enabling childhood and adulthood factors that promote and encourage men’s involvement in caregiving. It uses quantitative research to present findings from 1169 men across six countries with children aged 0–4, and a qualitative study to present findings from in-depth interviews with 83 men engaged in atypical caregiving practices.

Evolving Men: Initial Results from the International Men and Gender Equality Survey (IMAGES)

Are men evolving in their practices and attitudes related to gender equality? Changes in gender attitudes do seem to be happening as younger men and men with higher levels of education show more gender equitable attitudes and practices. The evidence is presented in this report summarizes the initial, comparative analysis of The International Men and Gender Equality Survey (IMAGES). IMAGES is a comprehensive household questionnaire that surveyed men’s attitudes and practices – along with women’s opinions and reports of men’s practices – on topics related to gender equality.


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