Care giving

Care roles, Unpaid Care Work, Fatherhood and the Care Economy
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Gender at Work: Emerging Messages

Gender equality at work matters. This World Bank brief is meant as a companion for the World Development Report on Jobs. It argues that closing the gender gap in employment is a win-win scenario for both business and development. Cited studies found that besides women’s social empowerment, closing the gender gap could push income per capita in emerging markets up to 14 percent higher by 2020.

Marriage, Motherhood, and Masculinity in the Global Economy: Reconfigurations of Personal and Economic Life

How are the rising rates of women in the workforce affecting family and household structures? In a world where there is still a widespread prevalence of male breadwinner ideologies, women’s earnings represent an apparent threat to male authority. This paper uses a gender perspective to analyse the social consequences of the global market economy on the family unit.

Marriage, Motherhood and Masculinity in the Global Economy: Reconfiguration of Personal and Economic Life

The informalisation and irregularity of work, and the feminisation of the global labour force are two critical outcomes of globalisation. What does the feminisation of the labour market mean for men and women’s experiences of gender equality?  Women’s increased access to work reflects multiple interrelated influences: shifts towards gender equity such as increased access to education for women and girls interact with deepening inequalities such as growing levels of landlessness and increased costs of living for all.

‘I can do women's work’: reflections on engaging men as allies in women's economic empowerment in Rwanda

Can the benefits of women’s economic empowerment be enhanced through engaging men to achieve gender equitable relations at the household level?  Research in Rwanda by CARE and Instituto Promundo has shown that discriminatory gender roles influence the way in which the benefits of a Village Savings and Loans scheme are used, with financial decision-making within the household still being dominated by men. A complex picture emerged in relation to women’s income and experiences of gender-based violence, with one of the main sources of conflict relating to money.

Care in Context: Men's Unpaid Work in 20 Countries, 1965–2003

What are the national structures that hinder and facilitate men’s unpaid work?  The author proposes that national context, presented here as women's employment practices and policies, influences men's unpaid work behaviors by shaping the benefits of adapting, the terms of bargaining, and the ease of adhering to established gender ideologies and norms. She finds that men's unpaid work time increases with national levels of women's employment.

A Feminist Political Economy Analysis of Public Policies Related to Care: A Thematic Review

What is the importance of unpaid care in the fight for the economic empowerment of women and girls? And is unpaid care a factor in national policy agendas? There is a large amount of evidence about the extent of unpaid care work that women and girls do, and its contributions to both the economy and human development outcomes. However, since the bulk of care work falls to women and girls, the responsibilities can undermine their rights, and limit their opportunities, capabilities and choices, impeding their empowerment.

Global Pathways to Men’s Caregiving: Mixed Methods Findings from the International Men and Gender Equality Survey and the Men Who Care Study (2014)

Promoting men’s participation in unpaid care work is an important step towards bringing about long-term sustainable gender equality. This study sought to understand the enabling childhood and adulthood factors that promote and encourage men’s involvement in caregiving. It uses quantitative research to present findings from 1169 men across six countries with children aged 0–4, and a qualitative study to present findings from in-depth interviews with 83 men engaged in atypical caregiving practices.

Evolving Men: Initial Results from the International Men and Gender Equality Survey (IMAGES)

Are men evolving in their practices and attitudes related to gender equality? Changes in gender attitudes do seem to be happening as younger men and men with higher levels of education show more gender equitable attitudes and practices. The evidence is presented in this report summarizes the initial, comparative analysis of The International Men and Gender Equality Survey (IMAGES). IMAGES is a comprehensive household questionnaire that surveyed men’s attitudes and practices – along with women’s opinions and reports of men’s practices – on topics related to gender equality.


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