World Development Report 2012: Gender Equality and Development (WDR)

Revenga, A.
Shetty, S.
Benveniste, L.
Coudouel, A.
Das, J.
Goldstein, M.
Muñoz Boudet, A.
Sánchez-Páramo, C.
The World Bank
Publication date: 
January 2012

What is the relationship between gender equality and current economic processes? This report is an analysis of the state of gender equality worldwide, with a focus on the economics of gender equality and development. It provides a conceptual framework that examines the factors that have fostered change and the constraints that have slowed progress in relation to gender equity.

The report uses the economic lens to both understand the gender gap, and explore policy and broader societal interventions. Divided into nine chapters, it draws on an extensive body of background papers, in-house research and publications, and the wider literature on gender inequality. The analysis focuses on the roles of economic growth, households, markets, and institutions in determining gender gaps in education and health, agency, and access to economic opportunities.

Recommendations for domestic policy include: reducing excess female mortality and closing education gaps where they remain, improving access to economic opportunities for women, increasing women's voice and agency in the household and in society, and limiting the reproduction of gender inequality across generations.  The report also advises the international community to compliment these four priority areas and support evidence-based public action through better data, impact evaluation and learning.

Publication place: 
Washington DC
World Development Report 2012: Gender Equality and Development. (2011). Washington, DC: The World Bank.
economic growth
economic opportunities
employment rates
information and communication technology (ict)
intergenerational mobility
life expectancy
policy design and implementation
; political institutions
poverty reduction
primary education
social norms
women’s empowerment
Gender equality
gender gap