In spite of progress over the last two decades to address poverty and inequality in the world, poverty still remains widespread with children and young people disproportionately affected. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) provide an opportunity to focus on children and young people by broadening policy agendas to include a greater emphasis on youth-led, or child-focused, concerns and research practices. A need is emerging for research evidence on issues that affect adolescents and young people; for interventions that can support their transition to adulthood; and on research that focuses on children and young people's agency and creativity in facing the multi-faceted problems that they experience in their lives. This guide draws on a recent synthesis of research outputs focusing on children and young people from the ESRC-DFID Joint Fund for Poverty Alleviation. It highlights research that has directly engaged young people, through peer research and participatory practice for example, or has looked at the factors that enable (or indeed inhibit) their ability to influence what happens in their lives. This Key Issues Guide is presented in partnership with Eldis.